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Pci passthrough

Pci passthrough

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Enable the IOMMU
    • 2.1 Intel CPU
    • 2.2 AMD CPU
    • 2.3 PT Mode
  • 3 Required Modules
  • 4 IOMMU Interrupt Remapping
  • 5 Verify IOMMU Isolation
  • 6 Determine your PCI card address, and configure your VM
  • 7 PCI Express Passthrough
  • 8 GPU Passthrough
    • 8.1 GPU OVMF PCI Passthrough (recommended)
    • 8.2 GPU OVMF PCI Express Passthrough
    • 8.3 GPU Seabios PCI Passthrough
    • 8.4 GPU Seabios PCI Express Passthrough
    • 8.5 How to know if a Graphics Card is UEFI (OVMF) compatible
    • 8.6 NVIDIA Tips
    • 8.7 The ‘romfile’ Option
  • 9 Troubleshooting
    • 9.1 BAR 3: can’t reserve [mem] error
    • 9.2 SPICE
    • 9.3 HDMI Audio crackling/broken
    • 9.4 BIOS options
  • 10 Verify Operation
  • 11 USB Passthrough

Causes of this Error

This error has been known to occur as a result of one of the following causes:

Cause 1: Bad BIOS configuration

Since this error occurs when BIOS is unable to find the operating system, checking the BIOS settings first is often a good solution. The BIOS configuration can become incorrect because of power outages, hardware errors or errors made when configuring the BIOS manually.

Cause 2: BCD is damaged

Similar to the errors outlined in the BCD is missing and BCD is corrupt articles, this error can also appear when BCD becomes damaged.

Cause 3: Faulty data cables

If the BIOS is unable to detect the hard drive, the faulty data cables are often to blame. Try to unplug, and then plug them back, or even replace them altogether and see whether the problem persists.

BIOS setup

The PlayStation 1 BIOS is required in order to boot games. This is a separate download after you’ve downloaded pSX. Below you can download this BIOS.

  • PlayStation 1 BIOS (236 KB). Download by right-clicking the download link and go to Save Link As . When saving, rename the “_ip” file extension to “zip”. If you don’t see the file extension, try showing them.

Here’s what to do after you download the BIOS:

  1. Extract the BIOS from its zip file. Drag “Scph1001.bin” to pSX’s BIOS folder, as shown below:
  2. Open pSX. Go to File > Configuration , as shown below:
  3. Click on the BIOS tab. Then click the “. ” button (shown below). Select the “Scph1001.bin” BIOS file, then click Open .
  4. Click OK . Then close pSX. The next time you open pSX, it will be ready for you load a game.

How do I update my BIOS in Windows 10?

For many motherboards, you can’t update from Windows 10. You will need to reboot and enter the BIOS and search the menu for an option like «EZ Flash» «M Flash» or «Q Flash». Just follow the on-screen instructions to select the BIOS file from your USB drive.

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If you can’t access the BIOS, here are some extra tips, especially if your motherboard uses UEFI instead.

In Windows 10

You might find an Update utility for Windows provided by your motherboard manufacturer. You often get the option of doing a backup of your BIOS beforehand. Look for an entry along the lines of «Save current BIOS data» and select a folder of your choice to store it in.

To download the update, you will now need to look for an option such as «Update BIOS from the Internet» and click on it. If the default server does not respond, you can usually find an «Auto Select» option nearby to switch to another one. In the unlikely event that a newer version of your updating software is available, you will likely be required to download it first, so don’t worry about that.

After finding a newer version of your BIOS software, download it and click on «Update BIOS from a file» to select it for the process. Depending on your updating utility, you might arrive at a final page that compares the information of your old BIOS version with the new one – this is your last chance to check of everything is in order. If you are absolutely positive to start to process, click on «Update» or «Flash». After the process is done, reboot your PC for the changes to take effect.

Check BIOS settings

Once the flashing tool has successfully finished updating, you can restart your PC or laptop immediately and resume working with the new BIOS. However, we recommend checking some things first.

Enter the BIOS using the appropriate key during boot up. Check the main settings to ensure the date and time are correct, the boot order (i.e. which hard drive is checked first for a Windows installation), and make sure everything else looks correct. Don’t worry too much about the advanced settings unless you experience any problems. If you noted down your previous BIOS settings or know what they should be — such as CPU and memory frequencies, configure them accordingly. Make sure to save your changes before exiting again.

The update failed: what now?

In spite of every precaution and safety measure, the update can still fail — whether it be due to unexpected incompatibility issues, an unfortunate blackout or the cat walking on the keyboard.

Here’s what to do: If still functional, do not turn your PC off. Close the flash updating tool and restart the updating process to see if it works. If you made a backup of the BIOS, you can try selecting that file to install instead of the newer one. Some motherboards have a backup BIOS, so you may be able to restore the information from that: check your manual or instructions online for how to do it.

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Alternatively, it is also worth checking out whether or not the manufacturer sells its BIOS chips directly over an online shop, which more often than not turns out to be much cheaper.

If it’s time for a new board, here are the best budget motherboards to buy.

Note: We may earn a commission when you buy through links on our site, at no extra cost to you. This doesn’t affect our editorial independence. Learn more.

Author: Jim Martin, Editor

Jim has been testing and reviewing products for over 20 years. His main beats include VPN services, antivirus and web hosting. He also covers electric bikes, dash cams and smart home tech.

Encountering the dreaded GRUB 2 boot prompt

If improperly configured, GRUB 2 may fail to load and subsequently drop to a boot prompt. To address this issue, proceed as follows:

0. Load the XFS and LVM modules

1. List the drives which GRUB 2 sees:

2. The output for a dos partition table /dev/sda with three partitons will look something like this:

3. While the output for a gpt partition table /dev/sda with four partitions will look something like this:

4. With this information you can now probe each partition of the drive and locate your vmlinuz and initramfs files:

Will list the files on /dev/sda1. If this partition contains /boot, the output will show the full name of vmlinuz and initramfs.

5. Armed with the location and full name of vmlinuz and initramfs you can now boot your system.

5a. Declare your root partition:

5b. Declare the kernel you wish to use:

5c. Declare the initrd to use:

5d. Instruct GRUB 2 to boot the chosen files:

6. After boot, open a terminal.

7. Issue the grub2-mkconfig command to re-create the grub.cfg file grub2 needed to boot your system:

8. Issue the grub2-install command to install grub2 to your hard drive and make use of your config:

What causes no bootable devices found errors?

Put perfectly simply, a “no boot device found” error is caused when your PC can’t find a boot device.

That’s a little obvious, so let’s go into detail about what, exactly, it means for your PC to boot from a storage device. This is something that happens without issue every single time you start up your computer, except, obviously, when you encounter a startup error like this one.

A boot device is a storage device (a hard disk drive, a solid-state drive, etc.) or a partition on your storage device that clearly identifies itself to your computer’s BIOS (your motherboard’s firmware) as a bootable storage device. It identifies itself as a bootable device in two ways.

  1. The bootable storage device identifies itself to the BIOS. It says, “Hi, I’m a 250-gigabyte hard drive connected via SATA,” or, “Hi, I’m an eight-gigabyte flash drive plugged into the USB port,” and so on.
  2. Your motherboard keeps a prioritized list of all of the storage devices attached to your PC. The first device to tell BIOS that it’s a boot device (or, well, zeroth device, since machines tend to count from zero instead of one) is the one your PC will boot from. And which device is saying that is determined by certain bits of data in certain important places on the storage device’s boot sector or partition tables.
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That’s how your PC chooses a boot device. Or, at least, tries to. If it can’t successfully boot from the first device on the list, you’ve got a good chance of ending up with a “no boot device found” error message staring you in the face.

So now we know the immediate cause of these errors. Now we can go into which circumstances cause your boot device to stop identifying as a boot device.

Using old graphics modes in bootloader

Valid terminal output names depend on the platform, but may include ‘console’ (PC BIOS and EFI consoles), ‘serial’ (serial terminal), ‘gfxterm’ (graphics-mode output), ‘ofconsole’ (Open Firmware console), or ‘vga_text’ (VGA text output, mainly useful with Coreboot).

The default is to use the platform’s native terminal output.

The default in Fedora is gfxterm and to get the legacy graphics modes you need to set GRUB_TERMINAL to right variable from the description above in /etc/default/grub

Should you update the BIOS?

Regardless of which standard your device is running, it’s worth considering whether you really need to update the BIOS.

If something goes wrong during the BIOS update, your computer could be rendered useless. If there’s a power cut, or the computer gets turned off while updating, it could mean that it’s unable to boot at all. It’s unlikely, but not out of the question.

With that in mind, we’d recommend reading the release notes of the latest version (and each version back to the one currently installed) on the manufacturer’s website to see whether it will add the features you need or fix a problem or vulnerability. If not, there may be little point in taking the risk by updating.

Sometimes you will need to update the BIOS in order for the motherboard to properly support a new processor or other hardware, or to fix bugs and improve stability or performance.

More Information

Linked Entries

  • Bootcfg
  • Bootrec
  • VAIO Recovery Disk
  • Bootmgr is missing
  • Bootmgr is corrupt

Support Links

  • Easy Recovery Essentials for Windows – our repair and recovery disk.

It’s an easy-to-use and automated diagnostics disk. It’s available for Windows 8, Windows 7 and Windows Vista. It’s also available for Windows XP and Windows Server.

Read more at Windows Recovery Disks.

  • The NeoSmart Support Forums, member-to-member technical support and troubleshooting.
  • Get a discounted price on replacement setup and installation discs: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10.
  • Applicable Systems

    This Windows-related knowledgebase article applies to the following operating systems:

    • Windows XP (all editions)
    • Windows Vista (all editions)
    • Windows 7 (all editions)
    • Windows 8 (all editions)
    • Windows 8.1 (all editions)
    • Windows 10 (all editions)
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